Chapter 7. Memory

Chapter 7. Key Terms


lapses in memory that are caused by breaks in attention or our focus being somewhere else, during encoding

acoustic encoding

input of sounds, words, and music


loss of long-term memory that occurs as the result of disease, physical trauma, or psychological trauma

anterograde amnesia

loss of memory for events that occur after the brain damage

arousal theory

strong emotions trigger the formation of strong memories and weaker emotional experiences form weaker memories

Atkinson-Shiffrin model

memory model that states we process information through three systems: sensory memory, short-term memory, and long-term memory

automatic processing

encoding of informational details like time, space, frequency, and the meaning of words


how feelings and view of the world distort memory of past events


memory error in which you cannot access stored information


organizing information into manageable bits or chunks

collective memory

memories, knowledge, and cultural information often of important historical events that is passed down and maintained within a group or society over time.,


formulation of memories, memories are “built” and subject to multiple influences

declarative memory

type of long-term memory of facts and events we personally experience

deep processing

encoding of information that takes effort and attention

effortful processing

encoding of information that takes effort and attention

elaborative rehearsal

thinking about the meaning of new information and its relation to knowledge already stored in your memory


input of information into the memory system

episodic memory

type of declarative memory that contains information about events we have personally experienced, also known as autobiographical memory

explicit memory

memories we consciously try to remember and recall

flashbulb memory

exceptionally clear recollection of an important event


loss of information from long-term memory

implicit memory

memories that are not part of our consciousness

levels of processing

information that is thought of more deeply becomes more meaningful and thus better committed to memory

long-term memory (LTM)

continuous storage of information


set of processes used to encode, store, and retrieve information over different periods of time


memory error in which you confuse the source of your information

misinformation effect

after exposure to additional and possibly inaccurate information, a person may misremember the original event

mnemonic device

memory aids that help organize information for more effective encoding and retrieval


failure of the memory system that involves the involuntary recall of unwanted memories, particularly unpleasant ones

proactive interference

old information hinders the recall of newly learned information

procedural memory

type of long-term memory for making skilled actions, such as how to brush your teeth, how to drive a car, and how to swim


accessing information without cues


identifying previously learned information after encountering it again, usually in response to a cue


repetition of information to be remembered


learning information that was previously learned


act of getting information out of long-term memory storage and back into conscious awareness

retroactive interference

information learned more recently hinders the recall of older information

retrograde amnesia

loss of memory for events that occurred prior to brain trauma

self-reference effect

tendency for WEIRD individuals to have better memory for information that relates to oneself in comparison to material that has less personal relevance

semantic encoding

input of words and their meaning

semantic memory

type of declarative memory about words, concepts, and language-based knowledge and facts

sensory memory

storage of brief sensory events, such as sights, sounds, and tastes

shallow processing

limited attention to information results in inefficient processing

short-term memory (STM)

holds about seven bits of information before it is forgotten or stored, as well as information that has been retrieved and is being used


creation of a permanent record of information


effects of misinformation from external sources that leads to the creation of false memories


memory error in which unused memories fade with the passage of time

visual encoding

input of images


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Introduction to Psychology (A critical approach) Copyright © 2021 by Jill Grose-Fifer; Rose M. Spielman; Kathryn Dumper; William Jenkins; Arlene Lacombe; Marilyn Lovett; and Marion Perlmutter is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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