Chapter 8. Higher order cognition: Language and Intelligence

Chapter 8. Key Terms

analytical intelligence

aligned with academic problem solving and computations

ancestral language

language spoken by our ancestors


belonging to two cultures


ability to speak two languages fluently


thinking, including perception, learning, problem solving, judgment, and memory

cognitive psychology

field of psychology dedicated to studying every aspect of how people think

creative intelligence

ability to produce new products, ideas, or inventing a new, novel solution to a problem

crystallized intelligence

characterized by acquired knowledge and the ability to retrieve it

cultural identity

shared beliefs, norms, behaviors, and values with people of same culture

cultural intelligence

ability with which people can understand and relate to those in another culture

emotional intelligence

ability to understand emotions and motivations in yourself and others


scientifically erroneous and immoral theory designed to manipulate gene pool, centered on incorrect belief that racial differences in intelligence were genetic

executive function

mental processes that enable us to plan, focus attention, remember, and juggle multiple tasks

fluid intelligence

ability to see complex relationships and solve problems


set of rules that are used to convey meaning through the use of a lexicon

heritage language

minority language (either immigrant or indigenous) learned by its speakers at home as children

intelligence quotient

(also, IQ) score on a test designed to measure intelligence

intercultural sensitivity

understanding and appreciation of cross-cultural differences


communication system that involves using words to transmit information from one individual to another


the words of a given language

linguistic racism

acts of racism are perpetuated against individuals on the basis of their language use.

metaphorical meaning

something used symbolically to represent something else, e.g., a color may mean something other than an actual color


person who speaks only one language


smallest unit of language that conveys some type of meaning

Multiple Intelligences Theory

Gardner’s theory that each person possesses at least eight types of intelligence


ability to speak two or more languages fluently


administering a test to a large population so data can be collected to reference the normal scores for a population and its groups


basic sound unit of a given language

practical intelligence

aka “street smarts”

pragmatic language

use of appropriate communication in social situations

problem-solving strategy

method for solving problems


discriminatory practice that designates certain geographic areas as high risk (based on race/ethnicity); residents are denied services such as mortgages, insurance loans, and other financial services

representative sample

subset of the population that accurately represents the general population


process by which we derive meaning from morphemes and words

standard deviation

measure of variability that describes the difference between a set of scores and their mean


method of testing in which administration, scoring, and interpretation of results are consistent

stereotype threat

when people internalize negative stereotypes about themselves, which then negatively affects their performance


manner by which words are organized into sentences

Triarchic theory of intelligence

Sternberg’s theory of intelligence; three facets of intelligence: practical, creative, and analytical

White supremacy

belief that white people are superior to other races and should therefore dominate society, justifying the oppression of other racial and ethnic groups.


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Introduction to Psychology (A critical approach) Copyright © 2021 by Jill Grose-Fifer; Rose M. Spielman; Kathryn Dumper; William Jenkins; Arlene Lacombe; Marilyn Lovett; and Marion Perlmutter is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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