Chapter 8. Higher order cognition: Language and Intelligence

Chapter 8. Personal Application Questions

  • Consider the components of language mentioned in the text, such as lexicon, grammar, phonemes, and morphemes. Can you identify some examples from your native language that demonstrate these components? How do these components contribute to effective communication?
  • Think about the role of intonation and prosody in language. How does the use of emphasis, tone of voice, and pitch variations influence the meaning of a spoken sentence? Can you recall any personal experiences where the tone of voice or intonation had a significant impact on communication?
  • Explore the cultural variations in language practices mentioned in the text, such as expressing gratitude and making requests. Reflect on your own cultural background or experiences with different cultures. How do cultural norms and language influence the ways in which gratitude is expressed or requests are made or refused in your culture?
  • Consider the benefits of bilingualism and multilingualism discussed in the text. Are you fluent in multiple languages? If yes, have you noticed any cognitive or other advantages associated with speaking multiple languages in your own life?
  • If you only speak one language, what might be some of the best ways to learn about how to use another language effectively.
  • Reflect on the connection between language and identity. How does your use of language relate to your national or cultural identity? Have you ever experienced shifts in attitudes or behaviors when switching between languages? Can you provide personal examples that demonstrate the influence of language on your sense of self?
  • Explore the influence of language on thinking. Have you ever noticed differences in your thought processes or self-evaluation when using different languages? Can you recall situations where language context affected your perception of performance or influenced your thinking patterns?
  • How do your cultural values and beliefs influence your conceptualization of intelligence? In what ways do you emphasize practical skills, adaptability, or cognitive abilities in your understanding of intelligence?
  • In your own educational experiences, how have cognitive abilities related to academic achievement, such as rapid information processing, memory, language skills, mathematical aptitude, and logical reasoning, been emphasized?
  • Have you ever encountered situations where intelligence tests or cognitive aptitude tests felt culturally unfair? How do you think such tests can exclude individuals from marginalized groups from educational and career opportunities?
  • What influence do you think emotional intelligence plays in your personal life?
  • Do you believe your level of intelligence was improved because of the experiences in your childhood environment? Why or why not?
  • Reflecting on your own intellectual journey, can you describe a specific instance where you encountered a challenge or setback that tested your intellectual abilities? How did you approach the situation, and what mindset did you adopt to overcome it? How did this experience shape your understanding of intelligence and the importance of mindset in achieving personal growth and success?


Icon for the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License

Introduction to Psychology (A critical approach) Copyright © 2021 by Jill Grose-Fifer; Rose M. Spielman; Kathryn Dumper; William Jenkins; Arlene Lacombe; Marilyn Lovett; and Marion Perlmutter is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

Share This Book