Primary Source: Epistle to the secretaries

Please use the link on Blackboard to access Abd al-Hamid: Epistle to the secretaries ca. 750.

Source:

 

Text abridged from: Ibn Khaldun – The Muqaddimah, An Introduction to History.
Translated from the Arabic by Franz Rosenthal. Abridged and edited by N. J. Dawood.
London, Routledge and Kegan Paul in association with Secker and Warburg, 1967.

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Birth of Europe by Andrea Boffa is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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