This OER had been developed for the course HIST 113: The Birth of Europe taught at CUNY York College and is published under the CC BY-NC-SA License.  It is available online via Pressbooks HERE.

This OER textbook is a derivative of Western Civilization: A Concise History, written by Christopher Brooks, which is an Open Educational Resource (OER) published under a CC BY-NC-SA License. Published in 2019, with updates in 2020.

Where additional chapters and other materials have been included, attributions are provided.

Course and assignment information has been created by Andrea Boffa, with the exception of the Course Catalog Description.

 

 

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Birth of Europe by Andrea Boffa is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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