Article Open Access

Blumer, H. (1958). Race Prejudice as a Sense of Group Position. The Pacific Sociological Review, 1(1), 3–7.

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APAN I. 2015. Norton, Mary Beth, Jane Kamensky, Carol Sheriff, David W. Blight, Howard P. Chudacoff, Fredrik Logevall, and Beth Bailey. A People and a Nation: A History of the United States, Volume I: to 1877. 10th edition. Cengage Learning.

APAN II. 2015. Norton, Mary Beth, Jane Kamensky, Carol Sheriff, David W. Blight, Howard P. Chudacoff, Fredrik Logevall, and Beth Bailey. A People and a Nation: A History of the United States, Volume II: Since 1865. 10th edition. Cengage Learning.

Bourdieu, P. (1984). Distinction: A Social Critique of the Judgement of Taste. Harvard University Press.

Chasteen, John Charles. 2001. Born in Blood and Fire: A Concise History of Latin America. WW Norton & Company.

Cole, S., Parker, A. M., & Edwards, L. F. (2004). Beyond Black & white: Race, ethnicity, and gender in the U.S. South and Southwest (1st ed.). Published for the University of Texas at Arlington by Texas A & M University Press.

Desmond, Matthew, and Mustafa Emirbayer. 2010. Racial Domination, Racial Progress: The Sociology of Race in America. McGraw Hill.

Emirbayer, M., & Desmond, M. (2015). The Racial Order. University of Chicago Press.

Gómez, Laura E. 2018 [2007]. Manifest Destinies: The Making of the Mexican American Race. Second Ed. NYU Press.

Hohle, Randolph. 2018. Racism in the Neoliberal Era: A Meta History of Elite White Power. New York: Routledge.

Ignatiev, N. (2012)[2015]. How the Irish Became White. Routledge.

Klinkner Philip A. and Rogers M. Smith. 1999. The Unsteady March: The Rise and Decline of Racial Equality in America. University of Chicago Press.

Lamming, George. 1991 [1953]. In the Castle of My Skin. The University of Michigan Press.

Moore, Wendy Leo. 2008. Reproducing Racism: White Space, Elite Law Schools, and Racial Inequality. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

Warman, Arturo. 2003. Los indios mexicanos en el umbral del milenio. Fondo de Cultura Económica.

Yashar, Deborah J. 2005. Contesting Citizenship in Latin America: The Rise of Indigenous Movements and the Postliberal Challenge. Cambridge University Press.

eBook (John Jay College Community Access)

Briggs, Laura. 2002. Reproducing Empire: Race, Sex, Science, and U.S. Imperialism in Puerto Rico. University of California Press.

Central Works of Philosophy v4: Twentieth Century: Moore to Popper. (n.d.). Routledge & CRC Press.

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Harvey, Jennifer. 2007. Whiteness and Morality: Pursuing Racial Justice Through Reparations and Sovereignty. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Jacobson, Matthew Frye. 1998. Whiteness of a Different Color: European Immigrants and the Alchemy of Race. Harvard University Press.

Loveman, Mara. 2014. National Colors: Racial Classification and the State in Latin America. Oxford University Press, USA.

Marx, Anthony W. 1997. Making Race and Nation: A Comparison of South Africa, the United States, and Brazil. Cambridge University Press.

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Baker, R. (1995). Los Dos Mundos. Utah State University, University Libraries.

Berger, P. L. (1966). The social construction of reality; a treatise in the sociology of knowledge. Garden City, N.Y., Doubleday.

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Case Open Access

Cisneros v. Corpus Christi Independent School Dist., 324 F. Supp. 599 (S.D. Tex. 1970). Retrieved September 7, 2022, from

Hernandez v. Texas, 347 U.S. 475 (1954). Retrieved September 7, 2022, from

Indep. Sch. Dist. V. Salvatierra, 33 S.W.2d 790 | Casetext Search + Citator. Retrieved September 7, 2022, from

Mendez v. Westminister School Dist., 64 F. Supp. 544 (S.D. Cal. 1946). Retrieved September 7, 2022, from

Ramirez v. State, 40 S.W.2d 138 (1931) | Caselaw Access Project. Retrieved September 7, 2022, from

Case Summary OER

Hernandez v. Texas. (n.d.). Oyez. Retrieved February 4, 2023, from

Library Database (John Jay College Community Access)

Bradshaw, Gilbert. “Who’s Black, Who’s Brown, and Who Cares: A Legal Discussion of Hernandez v. Texas Notes and Comments.” Brigham Young University Education and Law Journal, vol. 2007, no. 2, 2007, pp. 351–82,

Delgado, Richard. “Rodrigo’s Roundelay: Hernandez v. Texas and the Interest-Convergence Dilemma.” Harvard Civil Rights-Civil Liberties Law Review, vol. 41, no. 1, 2006, pp. 23–66,

Fuhlhage, Michael. “Brave Old Spaniards and Indolent Mexicans: J. Ross Browne, Harper’s New Monthly Magazine , and the Social Construction of Off-Whiteness in the 1860s.” American Journalism, vol. 31, no. 1, Winter 2014, pp. 100–26,

Godfrey, Phoebe C. “The ‘Other White’: Mexican Americans and the Impotency of Whiteness in the Segregation and Desegregation of Texan Public Schools.” Equity & Excellence in Education, vol. 41, no. 2, June 2008, pp. 247–61,

Gross, Ariela J. “The Caucasian Cloak: Mexican Americans and the Politics of Whiteness in the Twentieth-Century Southwest.” Georgetown Law Journal, vol. 95, no. 2, 2007 2006, pp. 337–92,

Lopez, Ian F. Haney. “Race, Ethnicity, Erasure: The Salience of Race to LatCrit Theory Symposium: Latcrit: Latina/Os and the Law: Race, Ethnicity &(and) Nationhood.” California Law Review, vol. 85, no. 5, 1997, pp. 1143–212,

Pascoe, Peggy. “Miscegenation Law, Court Cases, and Ideologies of ‘Race’ in Twentieth-Century America.” The Journal of American History, vol. 83, no. 1, 1996, pp. 44–69,

Sheridan, Clare. “Another White Race: Mexican Americans and the Paradox of Whiteness in Jury Selection Forum: Whiteness and Others: Mexican Americans and American Law.” Law and History Review, vol. 21, no. 1, 2003, pp. 109–44,

Wilson, Steven H. “Brown over Other White: Mexican American’s Legal Arguments and Litigation Strategy in School Desegregation Lawsuits Forum: Whiteness and Others: Mexican Americans and American Law.” Law and History Review, vol. 21, no. 1, 2003, pp. 145–94,

Video Recording (John Jay College Community Access)

Camino Bluff Productions, Independent Television Service, Latino Public Broadcasting, WGBH, PBS Home Video, PBS Distribution, Miller, P., Sandoval, C., Grimberg, S., Olmos, E. J., Moore, A., Vega, A., & Schoenberg, S. (Directors). (2009). A Class Apart: A Mexican American civil rights story (Widescreen.). PBS Home Video.


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