Article Open Access

Argiriou, S. L. (n.d.). TERRY FRISK UPDATE.

Coviello, D., & Persico, N. (2013). An Economic Analysis of Black-White Disparities in NYPD’s Stop and Frisk Program (No. w18803; p. w18803). National Bureau of Economic Research.

Cook, J. (2021). Suspicionless Policing. Scholarly Works, 89, 1568.

Goel, S., Rao, J. M., & Shroff, R. (2016). Precinct or prejudice? Understanding racial disparities in New York City’s stop-and-frisk policy. The Annals of Applied Statistics, 10(1), 365–394.

Harris, D. A. (n.d.). Factors for Reasonable Suspicion: When Black and Poor Means Stopped and Frisked. Indiana Law Journal, 69, 31.’,-2&text=A%20substantial%20body%20of%20law,crime%20activity%2C%20and%20evasive%20behavior

Jones-Brown, D. D. (2013). Stop, Question & Frisk Policing Practices In New York City: A Primer.

Report of Dennis C. Smith, Ph.D. and Robert M. Purtell, Ph.D. in Response to the Second Supplemental Report of Jeffrey Fagan, Ph.D. (n.d.). Retrieved September 2, 2022, from

Second Supplemental Report of Jeffrey Fagan, Ph.D. (n.d.). Retrieved September 2, 2022, from

Thornton, K. D. (2012). It’s Not Purely Academic: Using Practitioners to Increase the Rigor and Practical Learning in Scholarly Writing. Perspectives: Teaching Legal Research and Writing, 20, 65.

Book Print

Fortner, M. J. (2015). Black silent majority: the Rockefeller drug laws and the politics of punishment. Harvard University Press.

Ferguson, A. G. (2017). The rise of big data policing: surveillance, race, and the future of law enforcement. University Press.

Taylor, C. (2019). Fight the power: African Americans and the long history of police brutality in New York City. University Press.

White, M. D. (2016). Stop and frisk: the use and abuse of a controversial policing tactic. University Press.

Case Open Access

Minnesota v. Dickerson, 508 U.S. 366 (1993). (n.d.). Justia Law. Retrieved November 16, 2022, from

Terry Stop and Frisks Doctrine and Practice Library of Congress. (n.d.). Retrieved December 14, 2022, from

Terry vs Ohio Office of Justice Programs. (n.d.). Retrieved December 14, 2022, from

Terry v. Ohio, 392 U.S. 1 (1968). (n.d.). Justia Law. Retrieved September 2, 2022, from

Case Summary OER

Minnesota v. Dickerson. (n.d.). Oyez. Retrieved November 16, 2022, from

Terry v. Ohio. (n.d.). Oyez. Retrieved February 17, 2023, from

eBook (John Jay College Community Access)

O’Flaherty, B. (2019). Shadows of doubt: stereotypes, crime, and the pursuit of justice. Harvard University Press.

Schauer, F. F. (2009). Thinking like a lawyer a new introduction to legal reasoning. Harvard University Press.

eBook Open Access

Bast, C., & Hawkins, M. (2022). Foundations of Legal Research and Writing. MERLOT.

Edlin, D. E. (2016). Common Law Judging: Subjectivity, Impartiality, and the Making of Law. University of Michigan Press.

Egbert, S., & Leese, M. (2021). Criminal Futures : Predictive Policing and Everyday Police Work. Taylor & Francis.

Ellsworth, P. (2005). Legal Reasoning. In The Cambridge Handbook of Thinking and Reasoning.

Garner, B. (2022). Legal Writing in Plain English: A Text with Exercises. MERLOT.

Mangan, J. (2022). Legal Writing Manual – Second Edition. MERLOT.

National Academies of Sciences, E. (2017). Proactive Policing: Effects on Crime and Communities.

Statsky, W. (2021). Gilbert Law Summaries on Legal Research, Writing and Analysis. MERLOT.

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Library Database (John Jay College Community Access)

Garrison, A. H. (2014). NYPD Stop and Frisk, Perceptions of Criminals, Race and the Meaning of Terry v. Ohio: A Content Analysis of Floyd, et al. v City of New York. Rutgers Race & the Law Review, 15, 65–156.

Meares, T. L. (2015). Programming Errors: Understanding the Constitutionality of Stop-and-Frisk as a Program, Not an Incident Symposium: Criminal Procedure in the Spotlight. University of Chicago Law Review, 82(1), 159–180.

Segal, J. (2012). “All of the Mysticism of Police Expertise”: Legalizing Stop-and-Frisk in New York, 1961-1968 Note. Harvard Civil Rights-Civil Liberties Law Review, 47(2), 573–616.

Smith, M. R., Rojek, J. J., Petrocelli, M., & Withrow, B. (2017). Measuring Disparities in Police Activities: A State of the Art Review. Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies and Management, 40(2), 166–183.

The Warren Court and the Birth of the Reasonably Unreasonable Police Officer. (n.d.). Stetson L. Rev. Retrieved September 2, 2022, from


Leventakis, G., & Haberfeld, M. R. (2018). Community-Oriented Policing and Technological Innovations. Springer Nature.

Ly, L. (2021). Racial Profiling: Understanding the Practice of Stop-and-Frisk in New York City. Spectra Undergraduate Research Journal, 1(2).

Statistics. (n.d.). Retrieved September 6, 2022, from

Video Recording Open Access

The Supreme Court 3of4 A Nation of Liberties. (2018, January 4). Dailymotion.


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